Isaac Newton Institute Virtual Christmas Dinner

- Focus in machine learning has been on FAcT learning.
- Fairness, accountability and Transparency in individual models.
- But individual models aren’t the problem.
- Fariness, interpetability and transparency required for whole system.

- Composite
*multivariate*function \[ \mathbf{g}(\mathbf{ x})=\mathbf{ f}_5(\mathbf{ f}_4(\mathbf{ f}_3(\mathbf{ f}_2(\mathbf{ f}_1(\mathbf{ x}))))). \]

- Composite
*multivariate*function \[ p(\mathbf{ y}|\mathbf{ x})= p(\mathbf{ y}|\mathbf{ f}_5)p(\mathbf{ f}_5|\mathbf{ f}_4)p(\mathbf{ f}_4|\mathbf{ f}_3)p(\mathbf{ f}_3|\mathbf{ f}_2)p(\mathbf{ f}_2|\mathbf{ f}_1)p(\mathbf{ f}_1|\mathbf{ x}) \]

- Automate the process of
*explaining*and maintaining ML Systems. - Challenge is these systems are highly complex:
- Flaws need rapid addressing.

- This becomes apparent in operational science

- Been working with the DELVE Group
- One perspective on challenge facing government:
- Intellectual Debt for the whole country
- Ideas about
*explaining*a complex system much wider applicability.

- Implications for
*digital twins*

- twitter: @lawrennd
- podcast: The Talking Machines
- newspaper: Guardian Profile Page
- blog: http://inverseprobability.com

Dunlop, M.M., Girolami, M.A., Stuart, A.M., Teckentrup, A.L., n.d. How deep are deep Gaussian processes? Journal of Machine Learning Research 19, 1–46.