[edit]

The Data Delusion

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at Rework Deep Learning Summit, London, UK on Sep 22, 2016 [Powerpoint]
Neil D. Lawrence, Amazon Cambridge and University of Sheffield

Links

Abstract

The widespread success of deep learning in a variety of domains is being hailed as a new revolution in artificial intelligence. It has taken 20 years to go from defeating Kasparov at Chess to Lee Sedol at Go. But what have the real advances been across this time? The fundamental change has been in terms of data availability and compute availability. The underlying technology has not changed much in the last 20 years. So what does that mean for areas like medicine and health? Significant challenges remain, improving the data efficiency of these algorithms and retaining the balance between individual privacy and predictive power of the models. In this talk we will review these challenges and propose some ways forward. Bio: Neil Lawrence is a Professor of Machine Learning and Computational Biology at the University of Sheffield. His main research interest is machine learning through probabilistic models. He focuses on both the algorithmic side of these models and their application. He has a particular focus on applications in personalized health and applications in the developing world. He is well known for his work with Gaussian processes, and has proposed Gaussian process variants of many of the succesful deep learning architectures. He is highly active in the machine learning community, most recently Program Chairing the NIPS conference in 2014 and General Chairing (alongside Corinna Cortes) in 2015.

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Uglow (2002)


Deep Learning [edit]

DeepFace [edit]

Figure: The DeepFace architecture (Taigman et al. 2014), visualized through colors to represent the functional mappings at each layer. There are 120 million parameters in the model.

The DeepFace architecture (Taigman et al. 2014) consists of layers that deal with translation and rotational invariances. These layers are followed by three locally-connected layers and two fully-connected layers. Color illustrates feature maps produced at each layer. The neural network includes more than 120 million parameters, where more than 95% come from the local and fully connected layers.

Deep Learning as Pinball [edit]

Figure: Deep learning models are composition of simple functions. We can think of a pinball machine as an analogy. Each layer of pins corresponds to one of the layers of functions in the model. Input data is represented by the location of the ball from left to right when it is dropped in from the top. Output class comes from the position of the ball as it leaves the pins at the bottom.

Sometimes deep learning models are described as being like the brain, or too complex to understand, but one analogy I find useful to help the gist of these models is to think of them as being similar to early pin ball machines.

In a deep neural network, we input a number (or numbers), whereas in pinball, we input a ball.

Think of the location of the ball on the left-right axis as a single number. Our simple pinball machine can only take one number at a time. As the ball falls through the machine, each layer of pins can be thought of as a different layer of ‘neurons’. Each layer acts to move the ball from left to right.

In a pinball machine, when the ball gets to the bottom it might fall into a hole defining a score, in a neural network, that is equivalent to the decision: a classification of the input object.

An image has more than one number associated with it, so it is like playing pinball in a hyper-space.


Figure: At initialization, the pins, which represent the parameters of the function, aren’t in the right place to bring the balls to the correct decisions.


Figure: After learning the pins are now in the right place to bring the balls to the correct decisions.

Learning involves moving all the pins to be in the correct position, so that the ball ends up in the right place when it’s fallen through the machine. But moving all these pins in hyperspace can be difficult.

In a hyper-space you have to put a lot of data through the machine for to explore the positions of all the pins. Even when you feed many millions of data points through the machine, there are likely to be regions in the hyper-space where no ball has passed. When future test data passes through the machine in a new route unusual things can happen.

Adversarial examples exploit this high dimensional space. If you have access to the pinball machine, you can use gradient methods to find a position for the ball in the hyper space where the image looks like one thing, but will be classified as another.

Probabilistic methods explore more of the space by considering a range of possible paths for the ball through the machine. This helps to make them more data efficient and gives some robustness to adversarial examples.


Deep Health [edit]

Figure: The deep health model uses different layers of abstraction in the deep Gaussian process to represent information about diagnostics and treatment to model interelationships between a patients different data modalities.

From a machine learning perspective, we’d like to be able to interrelate all the different modalities that are informative about the state of the disease. For deep health, the notion is that the state of the disease is appearing at the more abstract levels, as we descend the model, we express relationships between the more abstract concept, that sits within the physician’s mind, and the data we can measure.



Thank you!

Neil Lawrence
http://inverseprobability.com
@lawrennd

References

Taigman, Yaniv, Ming Yang, Marc’Aurelio Ranzato, and Lior Wolf. 2014. “DeepFace: Closing the Gap to Human-Level Performance in Face Verification.” In Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. https://doi.org/10.1109/CVPR.2014.220.

Uglow, Jenny. 2002. The Lunar Men: The Inventors of the Modern World 1730-1810. Faber & Faber.