[edit]

The Future of AI

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at Autumn Data Science School, Cambridge on Sep 26, 2019 [reveal]
Neil D. Lawrence, University of Sheffield

Abstract

Waves of automation have driven human advance, and each wave requires humans to The promise of AI is to launch new systems of automated intellectual endeavour that will be the first systems to adapt to us. In reality, the systems we have will not achieve this, and it is the biological sciences that teach us this lesson most starkly. In this talk I will review some of the successes and challenges of AI and its deployment and propose practical visions for the future based on approaches that have worked in the past.

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What is Machine Learning? [edit]

What is machine learning? At its most basic level machine learning is a combination of


$$\text{data} + \text{model} \xrightarrow{\text{compute}} \text{prediction}$$

where data is our observations. They can be actively or passively acquired (meta-data). The model contains our assumptions, based on previous experience. That experience can be other data, it can come from transfer learning, or it can merely be our beliefs about the regularities of the universe. In humans our models include our inductive biases. The prediction is an action to be taken or a categorization or a quality score. The reason that machine learning has become a mainstay of artificial intelligence is the importance of predictions in artificial intelligence. The data and the model are combined through computation.

In practice we normally perform machine learning using two functions. To combine data with a model we typically make use of:

a prediction function a function which is used to make the predictions. It includes our beliefs about the regularities of the universe, our assumptions about how the world works, e.g. smoothness, spatial similarities, temporal similarities.

an objective function a function which defines the cost of misprediction. Typically it includes knowledge about the world’s generating processes (probabilistic objectives) or the costs we pay for mispredictions (empiricial risk minimization).

The combination of data and model through the prediction function and the objectie function leads to a learning algorithm. The class of prediction functions and objective functions we can make use of is restricted by the algorithms they lead to. If the prediction function or the objective function are too complex, then it can be difficult to find an appropriate learning algorithm. Much of the acdemic field of machine learning is the quest for new learning algorithms that allow us to bring different types of models and data together.

A useful reference for state of the art in machine learning is the UK Royal Society Report, Machine Learning: Power and Promise of Computers that Learn by Example.

You can also check my post blog post on What is Machine Learning?..

Artificial Intelligence and Data Science [edit]

Machine learning technologies have been the driver of two related, but distinct disciplines. The first is data science. Data science is an emerging field that arises from the fact that we now collect so much data by happenstance, rather than by experimental design. Classical statistics is the science of drawing conclusions from data, and to do so statistical experiments are carefully designed. In the modern era we collect so much data that there’s a desire to draw inferences directly from the data.

As well as machine learning, the field of data science draws from statistics, cloud computing, data storage (e.g. streaming data), visualization and data mining.

In contrast, artificial intelligence technologies typically focus on emulating some form of human behaviour, such as understanding an image, or some speech, or translating text from one form to another. The recent advances in artifcial intelligence have come from machine learning providing the automation. But in contrast to data science, in artifcial intelligence the data is normally collected with the specific task in mind. In this sense it has strong relations to classical statistics.

Classically artificial intelligence worried more about logic and planning and focussed less on data driven decision making. Modern machine learning owes more to the field of Cybernetics (Wiener 1948) than artificial intelligence. Related fields include robotics, speech recognition, language understanding and computer vision.

There are strong overlaps between the fields, the wide availability of data by happenstance makes it easier to collect data for designing AI systems. These relations are coming through wide availability of sensing technologies that are interconnected by celluar networks, WiFi and the internet. This phenomenon is sometimes known as the Internet of Things, but this feels like a dangerous misnomer. We must never forget that we are interconnecting people, not things.

Convention for the Protection of Individuals with regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (1981/1/28)

Supply Chain [edit]

Figure: Packhorse Bridge under Burbage Edge. This packhorse route climbs steeply out of Hathersage and heads towards Sheffield. Packhorses were the main route for transporting goods across the Peak District. The high cost of transport is one driver of the ‘smith’ model, where there is a local skilled person responsible for assembling or creating goods (e.g. a blacksmith).

On Sunday mornings in Sheffield, I often used to run across Packhorse Bridge in Burbage valley. The bridge is part of an ancient network of trails crossing the Pennines that, before Turnpike roads arrived in the 18th century, was the main way in which goods were moved. Given that the moors around Sheffield were home to sand quarries, tin mines, lead mines and the villages in the Derwent valley were known for nail and pin manufacture, this wasn’t simply movement of agricultural goods, but it was the infrastructure for industrial transport.

The profession of leading the horses was known as a Jagger and leading out of the village of Hathersage is Jagger’s Lane, a trail that headed underneath Stanage Edge and into Sheffield.

The movement of goods from regions of supply to areas of demand is fundamental to our society. The physical infrastructure of supply chain has evolved a great deal over the last 300 years.

Cromford [edit]

Figure: Richard Arkwright is regarded of the founder of the modern factory system. Factories exploit distribution networks to centralize production of goods. Arkwright located his factory in Cromford due to proximity to Nottingham Weavers (his market) and availability of water power from the tributaries of the Derwent river. When he first arrived there was almost no transportation network. Over the following 200 years The Cromford Canal (1790s), a Turnpike (now the A6, 1816-18) and the High Peak Railway (now closed, 1820s) were all constructed to improve transportation access as the factory blossomed.

Richard Arkwright is known as the father of the modern factory system. In 1771 he set up a Mill for spinning cotton yarn in the village of Cromford, in the Derwent Valley. The Derwent valley is relatively inaccessible. Raw cotton arrived in Liverpool from the US and India. It needed to be transported on packhorse across the bridleways of the Pennines. But Cromford was a good location due to proximity to Nottingham, where weavers where consuming the finished thread, and the availability of water power from small tributaries of the Derwent river for Arkwright’s water frames which automated the production of yarn from raw cotton.

By 1794 the Cromford Canal was opened to bring coal in to Cromford and give better transport to Nottingham. The construction of the canals was driven by the need to improve the transport infrastructure, facilitating the movement of goods across the UK. Canals, roads and railways were initially constructed by the economic need for moving goods. To improve supply chain.

The A6 now does pass through Cromford, but at the time he moved there there was merely a track. The High Peak Railway was opened in 1832, it is now converted to the High Peak Trail, but it remains the highest railway built in Britain.

Cooper (1991)

Containerization [edit]

Figure: The container is one of the major drivers of globalization, and arguably the largest agent of social change in the last 100 years. It reduces the cost of transportation, significantly changing the appropriate topology of distribution networks. The container makes it possible to ship goods halfway around the world for cheaper than it costs to process those goods, leading to an extended distribution topology.

Containerization has had a dramatic effect on global economics, placing many people in the developing world at the end of the supply chain.

Figure: Wild Alaskan Cod, being solid in the Pacific Northwest, that is a product of China. It is cheaper to ship the deep frozen fish thousands of kilometers for processing than to process locally.

For example, you can buy Wild Alaskan Cod fished from Alaska, processed in China, sold in North America. This is driven by the low cost of transport for frozen cod vs the higher relative cost of cod processing in the US versus China. Similarly, Scottish prawns are also processed in China for sale in the UK.

This effect on cost of transport vs cost of processing is the main driver of the topology of the modern supply chain and the associated effect of globalization. If transport is much cheaper than processing, then processing will tend to agglomerate in places where processing costs can be minimized.

Large scale global economic change has principally been driven by changes in the technology that drives supply chain.

Supply chain is a large-scale automated decision making network. Our aim is to make decisions not only based on our models of customer behavior (as observed through data), but also by accounting for the structure of our fulfilment center, and delivery network.

Many of the most important questions in supply chain take the form of counterfactuals. E.g. “What would happen if we opened a manufacturing facility in Cambridge?” A counter factual is a question that implies a mechanistic understanding of a system. It goes beyond simple smoothness assumptions or translation invariants. It requires a physical, or mechanistic understanding of the supply chain network. For this reason, the type of models we deploy in supply chain often involve simulations or more mechanistic understanding of the network.

In supply chain Machine Learning alone is not enough, we need to bridge between models that contain real mechanisms and models that are entirely data driven.

This is challenging, because as we introduce more mechanism to the models we use, it becomes harder to develop efficient algorithms to match those models to data.

Figure: Arthur Christmas is the tale of delivering packages to children across the world in one night using 1.6 million elves using flying sleds. Truth is almost as strange as fiction, Amazon has over half a million employees, and drones aren’t yet approved for more than test flights.

Arthur Christmas [edit]

I think the best way of describing what my role at Amazon was is by referring to the film “Arthur Christmas”. In the film, the reality of what delivering presents to all the children in the world in one night is portrayed. Doing that job is what Amazon’s supply chain is designed for.

Of course, gift giving occurs at different times in different cultures, internally it would be referred to as ‘peak’, but the machine of Amazon is prediciting what people want, where they want it and how to get it there.

Santa’s Sleigh

In Arthur Christmas the entire operation was run from a flying ship for present delivery, of course, that’s a little ridiculous. The truth is that Amazon wants to use lots of little ships, or drones, and the team had the pleasure of working on developing those too.

Figure: An actual Santa’s sleigh. The transition from vertical to horizontal flight is vital for efficiency and requires sophisticated machine learning to achieve.

Deep Learning [edit]

DeepFace [edit]

Figure: The DeepFace architecture (Taigman et al. 2014), visualized through colors to represent the functional mappings at each layer. There are 120 million parameters in the model.

The DeepFace architecture (Taigman et al. 2014) consists of layers that deal with translation and rotational invariances. These layers are followed by three locally-connected layers and two fully-connected layers. Color illustrates feature maps produced at each layer. The neural network includes more than 120 million parameters, where more than 95% come from the local and fully connected layers.

Deep Learning as Pinball [edit]

Figure: Deep learning models are composition of simple functions. We can think of a pinball machine as an analogy. Each layer of pins corresponds to one of the layers of functions in the model. Input data is represented by the location of the ball from left to right when it is dropped in from the top. Output class comes from the position of the ball as it leaves the pins at the bottom.

Sometimes deep learning models are described as being like the brain, or too complex to understand, but one analogy I find useful to help the gist of these models is to think of them as being similar to early pin ball machines.

In a deep neural network, we input a number (or numbers), whereas in pinball, we input a ball.

Think of the location of the ball on the left-right axis as a single number. Our simple pinball machine can only take one number at a time. As the ball falls through the machine, each layer of pins can be thought of as a different layer of ‘neurons’. Each layer acts to move the ball from left to right.

In a pinball machine, when the ball gets to the bottom it might fall into a hole defining a score, in a neural network, that is equivalent to the decision: a classification of the input object.

An image has more than one number associated with it, so it is like playing pinball in a hyper-space.

Figure: At initialization, the pins, which represent the parameters of the function, aren’t in the right place to bring the balls to the correct decisions.

Figure: After learning the pins are now in the right place to bring the balls to the correct decisions.

Learning involves moving all the pins to be in the correct position, so that the ball ends up in the right place when it’s fallen through the machine. But moving all these pins in hyperspace can be difficult.

In a hyper-space you have to put a lot of data through the machine for to explore the positions of all the pins. Even when you feed many millions of data points through the machine, there are likely to be regions in the hyper-space where no ball has passed. When future test data passes through the machine in a new route unusual things can happen.

Adversarial examples exploit this high dimensional space. If you have access to the pinball machine, you can use gradient methods to find a position for the ball in the hyper space where the image looks like one thing, but will be classified as another.

Probabilistic methods explore more of the space by considering a range of possible paths for the ball through the machine. This helps to make them more data efficient and gives some robustness to adversarial examples.

Olympic Marathon Data [edit]

  • Gold medal times for Olympic Marathon since 1896.
  • Marathons before 1924 didn’t have a standardised distance.
  • Present results using pace per km.
  • In 1904 Marathon was badly organised leading to very slow times.
Image from Wikimedia Commons http://bit.ly/16kMKHQ

The first thing we will do is load a standard data set for regression modelling. The data consists of the pace of Olympic Gold Medal Marathon winners for the Olympics from 1896 to present. First we load in the data and plot.

Figure: Olympic marathon pace times since 1892.

Things to notice about the data include the outlier in 1904, in this year, the olympics was in St Louis, USA. Organizational problems and challenges with dust kicked up by the cars following the race meant that participants got lost, and only very few participants completed.

More recent years see more consistently quick marathons.

Alan Turing [edit]

Figure: Alan Turing, in 1946 he was only 11 minutes slower than the winner of the 1948 games. Would he have won a hypothetical games held in 1946? Source: Alan Turing Internet Scrapbook.

If we had to summarise the objectives of machine learning in one word, a very good candidate for that word would be generalization. What is generalization? From a human perspective it might be summarised as the ability to take lessons learned in one domain and apply them to another domain. If we accept the definition given in the first session for machine learning,
$$ \text{data} + \text{model} \xrightarrow{\text{compute}} \text{prediction} $$
then we see that without a model we can’t generalise: we only have data. Data is fine for answering very specific questions, like “Who won the Olympic Marathon in 2012?”, because we have that answer stored, however, we are not given the answer to many other questions. For example, Alan Turing was a formidable marathon runner, in 1946 he ran a time 2 hours 46 minutes (just under four minutes per kilometer, faster than I and most of the other Endcliffe Park Run runners can do 5 km). What is the probability he would have won an Olympics if one had been held in 1946?

To answer this question we need to generalize, but before we formalize the concept of generalization let’s introduce some formal representation of what it means to generalize in machine learning.

Our first objective will be to perform a Gaussian process fit to the data, we’ll do this using the GPy software.

The first command sets up the model, then m_full.optimize() optimizes the parameters of the covariance function and the noise level of the model. Once the fit is complete, we’ll try creating some test points, and computing the output of the GP model in terms of the mean and standard deviation of the posterior functions between 1870 and 2030. We plot the mean function and the standard deviation at 200 locations. We can obtain the predictions using y_mean, y_var = m_full.predict(xt)

Now we plot the results using the helper function in teaching_plots.

Figure: Gaussian process fit to the Olympic Marathon data. The error bars are too large, perhaps due to the outlier from 1904.

Fit Quality

In the fit we see that the error bars (coming mainly from the noise variance) are quite large. This is likely due to the outlier point in 1904, ignoring that point we can see that a tighter fit is obtained. To see this making a version of the model, m_clean, where that point is removed.

x_clean=np.vstack((x[0:2, :], x[3:, :]))
y_clean=np.vstack((y[0:2, :], y[3:, :]))

m_clean = GPy.models.GPRegression(x_clean,y_clean)
_ = m_clean.optimize()

Deep GP Fit [edit]

Let’s see if a deep Gaussian process can help here. We will construct a deep Gaussian process with one hidden layer (i.e. one Gaussian process feeding into another).

Build a Deep GP with an additional hidden layer (one dimensional) to fit the model.

Now optimize the model.

Olympic Marathon Data Deep GP

Figure: Deep GP fit to the Olympic marathon data. Error bars now change as the prediction evolves.

Olympic Marathon Data Deep GP

Figure: Point samples run through the deep Gaussian process show the distribution of output locations.

Fitted GP for each layer

Now we explore the GPs the model has used to fit each layer. First of all, we look at the hidden layer.

Figure: The mapping from input to the latent layer is broadly, with some flattening as time goes on. Variance is high across the input range.

Figure: The mapping from the latent layer to the output layer.

Olympic Marathon Pinball Plot

Figure: A pinball plot shows the movement of the ‘ball’ as it passes through each layer of the Gaussian processes. Mean directions of movement are shown by lines. Shading gives one standard deviation of movement position. At each layer, the uncertainty is reset. The overal uncertainty is the cumulative uncertainty from all the layers. There is some grouping of later points towards the right in the first layer, which also injects a large amount of uncertainty. Due to flattening of the curve in the second layer towards the right the uncertainty is reduced in final output.

The pinball plot shows the flow of any input ball through the deep Gaussian process. In a pinball plot a series of vertical parallel lines would indicate a purely linear function. For the olypmic marathon data we can see the first layer begins to shift from input towards the right. Note it also does so with some uncertainty (indicated by the shaded backgrounds). The second layer has less uncertainty, but bunches the inputs more strongly to the right. This input layer of uncertainty, followed by a layer that pushes inputs to the right is what gives the heteroschedastic noise.

Step Function [edit]

Next we consider a simple step function data set.

Step Function Data

Figure: Simulation study of step function data artificially generated. Here there is a small overlap between the two lines.

GPy: A Gaussian Process Framework in Python [edit]

Figure: GPy is a BSD licensed software code base for implementing Gaussian process models in Python. It is designed for teaching and modelling. We welcome contributions which can be made through the Github repository https://github.com/SheffieldML/GPy

GPy is a BSD licensed software code base for implementing Gaussian process models in python. This allows GPs to be combined with a wide variety of software libraries.

The software itself is available on GitHub and the team welcomes contributions.

The aim for GPy is to be a probabilistic-style programming language, i.e. you specify the model rather than the algorithm. As well as a large range of covariance functions the software allows for non-Gaussian likelihoods, multivariate outputs, dimensionality reduction and approximations for larger data sets.

Step Function Data GP

We can fit a Gaussian process to the step function data using GPy as follows.

Where GPy.models.GPRegression() gives us a standard GP regression model with exponentiated quadratic covariance function.

The model is optimized using m_full.optimize() which calls an L-BGFS gradient based solver in python.

Figure: Gaussian process fit to the step function data. Note the large error bars and the over-smoothing of the discontinuity. Error bars are shown at two standard deviations.

The resulting fit to the step function data shows some challenges. In particular, the over smoothing at the discontinuity. If we know how many discontinuities there are, we can parameterize them in the step function. But by doing this, we form a semi-parametric model. The parameters indicate how many discontinuities are, and where they are. They can be optimized as part of the model fit. But if new, unforeseen, discontinuities arise when the model is being deployed in practice, these won’t be accounted for in the predictions.

Step Function Data Deep GP

First we initialize a deep Gaussian process with three latent layers (four layers total). Within each layer we create a GP with an exponentiated quadratic covariance (GPy.kern.RBF).

At each layer we use 20 inducing points for the variational approximation.

Once the model is constructed we initialize the parameters, and perform the staged optimization which starts by optimizing variational parameters with a low noise and proceeds to optimize the whole model.

We plot the output of the deep Gaussian process fitted to the stpe data as follows.

The deep Gaussian process does a much better job of fitting the data. It handles the discontinuity easily, and error bars drop to smaller values in the regions of data.

Figure: Deep Gaussian process fit to the step function data.

Step Function Data Deep GP

The samples of the model can be plotted with the helper function from teaching_plots.py, model_sample

The samples from the model show that the error bars, which are informative for Gaussian outputs, are less informative for this model. They make clear that the data points lie, in output mainly at 0 or 1, or occasionally in between.

Figure: Samples from the deep Gaussian process model for the step function fit.

The visualize code allows us to inspect the intermediate layers in the deep GP model to understand how it has reconstructed the step function.

Figure: From top to bottom, the Gaussian process mapping function that makes up each layer of the resulting deep Gaussian process.

A pinball plot can be created for the resulting model to understand how the input is being translated to the output across the different layers.

Figure: Pinball plot of the deep GP fitted to the step function data. Each layer of the model pushes the ‘ball’ towards the left or right, saturating at 1 and 0. This causes the final density to be be peaked at 0 and 1. Transitions occur driven by the uncertainty of the mapping in each layer.

Gene Expression Example [edit]

We now consider an example in gene expression. Gene expression is the measurement of mRNA levels expressed in cells. These mRNA levels show which genes are ‘switched on’ and producing data. In the example we will use a Gaussian process to determine whether a given gene is active, or we are merely observing a noise response.

Della Gatta Gene Data [edit]

  • Given given expression levels in the form of a time series from Della Gatta et al. (2008).

Figure: Gene expression levels over time for a gene from data provided by Della Gatta et al. (2008). We would like to understand whethere there is signal in the data, or we are only observing noise.

  • Want to detect if a gene is expressed or not, fit a GP to each gene Kalaitzis and Lawrence (2011).

Figure: The example is taken from the paper “A Simple Approach to Ranking Differentially Expressed Gene Expression Time Courses through Gaussian Process Regression.” Kalaitzis and Lawrence (2011).

http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2105/12/180

Our first objective will be to perform a Gaussian process fit to the data, we’ll do this using the GPy software.

Initialize the length scale parameter (which here actually represents a time scale of the covariance function) to a reasonable value. Default would be 1, but here we set it to 50 minutes, given points are arriving across zero to 250 minutes.

Now we plot the results using the helper function in teaching_plots.

Figure: Result of the fit of the Gaussian process model with the time scale parameter initialized to 50 minutes.

Now we try a model initialized with a longer length scale.

Figure: Result of the fit of the Gaussian process model with the time scale parameter initialized to 2000 minutes.

Now we try a model initialized with a lower noise.

Figure: Result of the fit of the Gaussian process model with the noise initialized low (standard deviation 0.1) and the time scale parameter initialized to 20 minutes.

Figure:

Della Gatta Gene Data Deep GP

Figure: Deep Gaussian process fit to the Della Gatta gene expression data.

Della Gatta Gene Data Deep GP

Figure: Deep Gaussian process samples fitted to the Della Gatta gene expression data.

Della Gatta Gene Data Latent 1

Figure: Gaussian process mapping from input to latent layer for the della Gatta gene expression data.

Della Gatta Gene Data Latent 2

Figure: Gaussian process mapping from latent to output layer for the della Gatta gene expression data.

TP53 Gene Pinball Plot

Figure: A pinball plot shows the movement of the ‘ball’ as it passes through each layer of the Gaussian processes. Mean directions of movement are shown by lines. Shading gives one standard deviation of movement position. At each layer, the uncertainty is reset. The overal uncertainty is the cumulative uncertainty from all the layers. Pinball plot of the della Gatta gene expression data.

Deploying Artificial Intelligence [edit]

With the wide availability of new techniques, we are currently creating Artifical Intelligence through combination of machine learning algorithms to form machine learning systems.

This effect is amplified through the growth in sensorics, in particular the movement of cloud computing towards the customer. The barrier between cloud and device is blurring. This phenomenon is sometimes known as fog computing, or computing on the edge.

This presents major new challenges for machine learning systems design. We would like an internet of intelligence but currently our AI systems are fragile. A classical systems approach to design does not handle evolving environments well.

Example: Prediction of Malaria Incidence in Uganda [edit]

As an example of using Gaussian process models within the full pipeline from data to decsion, we’ll consider the prediction of Malaria incidence in Uganda. For the purposes of this study malaria reports come in two forms, HMIS reports from health centres and Sentinel data, which is curated by the WHO. There are limited sentinel sites and many HMIS sites.

The work is from Ricardo Andrade Pacheco’s PhD thesis, completed in collaboration with John Quinn and Martin Mubangizi (Andrade-Pacheco et al. 2014; Mubangizi et al. 2014). John and Martin were initally from the AI-DEV group from the University of Makerere in Kampala and more latterly they were based at UN Global Pulse in Kampala.

Malaria data is spatial data. Uganda is split into districts, and health reports can be found for each district. This suggests that models such as conditional random fields could be used for spatial modelling, but there are two complexities with this. First of all, occasionally districts split into two. Secondly, sentinel sites are a specific location within a district, such as Nagongera which is a sentinel site based in the Tororo district.

Figure: Ugandan districs. Data SRTM/NASA from https://dds.cr.usgs.gov/srtm/version2_1.

(Andrade-Pacheco et al. 2014; Mubangizi et al. 2014)

Figure: The Kapchorwa District, home district of Stephen Kiprotich.

Stephen Kiprotich, the 2012 gold medal winner from the London Olympics, comes from Kapchorwa district, in eastern Uganda, near the border with Kenya.

The common standard for collecting health data on the African continent is from the Health management information systems (HMIS). However, this data suffers from missing values (Gething et al. 2006) and diagnosis of diseases like typhoid and malaria may be confounded.

Figure: The Tororo district, where the sentinel site, Nagongera, is located.

World Health Organization Sentinel Surveillance systems are set up “when high-quality data are needed about a particular disease that cannot be obtained through a passive system”. Several sentinel sites give accurate assessment of malaria disease levels in Uganda, including a site in Nagongera.

Figure: Sentinel and HMIS data along with rainfall and temperature for the Nagongera sentinel station in the Tororo district.

In collaboration with the AI Research Group at Makerere we chose to investigate whether Gaussian process models could be used to assimilate information from these two different sources of disease informaton. Further, we were interested in whether local information on rainfall and temperature could be used to improve malaria estimates.

The aim of the project was to use WHO Sentinel sites, alongside rainfall and temperature, to improve predictions from HMIS data of levels of malaria.

Figure: The Mubende District.

Figure: Prediction of malaria incidence in Mubende.

Figure: The project arose out of the Gaussian process summer school held at Makerere in Kampala in 2013. The school led, in turn, to the Data Science Africa initiative.

Early Warning Systems

Figure: The Kabarole district in Uganda.

Figure: Estimate of the current disease situation in the Kabarole district over time. Estimate is constructed with a Gaussian process with an additive covariance funciton.

Health monitoring system for the Kabarole district. Here we have fitted the reports with a Gaussian process with an additive covariance function. It has two components, one is a long time scale component (in red above) the other is a short time scale component (in blue).

Monitoring proceeds by considering two aspects of the curve. Is the blue line (the short term report signal) above the red (which represents the long term trend? If so we have higher than expected reports. If this is the case and the gradient is still positive (i.e. reports are going up) we encode this with a red color. If it is the case and the gradient of the blue line is negative (i.e. reports are going down) we encode this with an amber color. Conversely, if the blue line is below the red and decreasing, we color green. On the other hand if it is below red but increasing, we color yellow.

This gives us an early warning system for disease. Red is a bad situation getting worse, amber is bad, but improving. Green is good and getting better and yellow good but degrading.

Finally, there is a gray region which represents when the scale of the effect is small.

Figure: The map of Ugandan districts with an overview of the Malaria situation in each district.

These colors can now be observed directly on a spatial map of the districts to give an immediate impression of the current status of the disease across the country.

Deep Health [edit]

Figure: The deep health model uses different layers of abstraction in the deep Gaussian process to represent information about diagnostics and treatment to model interelationships between a patients different data modalities.

From a machine learning perspective, we’d like to be able to interrelate all the different modalities that are informative about the state of the disease. For deep health, the notion is that the state of the disease is appearing at the more abstract levels, as we descend the model, we express relationships between the more abstract concept, that sits within the physician’s mind, and the data we can measure.

Conclusion [edit]

I’m very often struck by the relations between supply chain systems and cellular systems. A particular point to remember, is that both systems are evolved, not designed. In Supply Chain this is because the infrastructure is built over a period of time that has a time constant longer than the timeframe over which businesses move. In life it is similar, but the infrastructure is biochemical in form and the business problem is the environment.

References

Andrade-Pacheco, Ricardo, Martin Mubangizi, John Quinn, and Neil D. Lawrence. 2014. “Consistent Mapping of Government Malaria Records Across a Changing Territory Delimitation.” Malaria Journal 13 (Suppl 1). https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-13-S1-P5.

Cooper, Brian. 1991. Transformation of a Valley: Derbyshire Derwent. Scarthin Books.

Della Gatta, Giusy, Mukesh Bansal, Alberto Ambesi-Impiombato, Dario Antonini, Caterina Missero, and Diego di Bernardo. 2008. “Direct Targets of the Trp63 Transcription Factor Revealed by a Combination of Gene Expression Profiling and Reverse Engineering.” Genome Research 18 (6). Telethon Institute of Genetics; Medicine, 80131 Naples, Italy.: 939–48. https://doi.org/10.1101/gr.073601.107.

Gething, Peter W., Abdisalan M. Noor, Priscilla W. Gikandi, Esther A. A. Ogara, Simon I. Hay, Mark S. Nixon, Robert W. Snow, and Peter M. Atkinson. 2006. “Improving Imperfect Data from Health Management Information Systems in Africa Using Space–Time Geostatistics.” PLoS Medicine 3 (6). Public Library of Science. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030271.

Kalaitzis, Alfredo A., and Neil D. Lawrence. 2011. “A Simple Approach to Ranking Differentially Expressed Gene Expression Time Courses Through Gaussian Process Regression.” BMC Bioinformatics 12 (180). https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-12-180.

Mubangizi, Martin, Ricardo Andrade-Pacheco, Michael Thomas Smith, John Quinn, and Neil D. Lawrence. 2014. “Malaria Surveillance with Multiple Data Sources Using Gaussian Process Models.” In 1st International Conference on the Use of Mobile ICT in Africa.

Taigman, Yaniv, Ming Yang, Marc’Aurelio Ranzato, and Lior Wolf. 2014. “DeepFace: Closing the Gap to Human-Level Performance in Face Verification.” In Proceedings of the IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. https://doi.org/10.1109/CVPR.2014.220.

Wiener, Norbert. 1948. Cybernetics: Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.