Fairness and Diversity of Decision Making

[edit]

at Center for the Advanced Studies of the Behavioral Sciences, Joint American Academy and Royal Society Workshop on Nov 8, 2018 [reveal]
Neil D. Lawrence, Amazon Cambridge and University of Sheffield

Links

Abstract

Mathematical definitions of fairness insist on clearly categorized groups and clear mathematical interpretations of fairness. In law this arises through the concept of unlawful descrimination. There is no such thing as a correct model. We must accept that our predictions will sometimes be wrong. In the face of this certainty we have a choice: how we should be wrong. We can choose to be wrong by over-simplifying or we can choose to be wrong by over-complicating (given the available data). In machine learning this is known as the bias-variance dilemma. In this talk we consider the implications of the bias-variance dilemma for fairness of decision making.

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Machine learning allows us to extract knowledge from data to form a prediction.

\[ \text{data} + \text{model} \xrightarrow{\text{compute}} \text{prediction}\]

A machine learning prediction is made by combining a model with data to form the prediction. The manner in which this is done gives us the machine learning algorithm.

Machine learning models are mathematical models which make weak assumptions about data, e.g. smoothness assumptions. By combining these assumptions with the data we observe we can interpolate between data points or, occasionally, extrapolate into the future.

Machine learning is a technology which strongly overlaps with the methodology of statistics. From a historical/philosophical view point, machine learning differs from statistics in that the focus in the machine learning community has been primarily on accuracy of prediction, whereas the focus in statistics is typically on the interpretability of a model and/or validating a hypothesis through data collection.

The rapid increase in the availability of compute and data has led to the increased prominence of machine learning. This prominence is surfacing in two different, but overlapping domains: data science and artificial intelligence.

Helper function for sampling data from two different classes.

import numpy as np
def create_data(per_cluster=30):
    """Create a randomly sampled data set
    
    :param per_cluster: number of points in each cluster
    """
    X = []
    y = []
    scale = 3
    prec = 1/(scale*scale)
    pos_mean = [[-1, 0],[0,0.5],[1,0]]
    pos_cov = [[prec, 0.], [0., prec]]
    neg_mean = [[0, -0.5],[0,-0.5],[0,-0.5]]
    neg_cov = [[prec, 0.], [0., prec]]
    for mean in pos_mean:
        X.append(np.random.multivariate_normal(mean=mean, cov=pos_cov, size=per_class))
        y.append(np.ones((per_class, 1)))
    for mean in neg_mean:
        X.append(np.random.multivariate_normal(mean=mean, cov=neg_cov, size=per_class))
        y.append(np.zeros((per_class, 1)))
    return np.vstack(X), np.vstack(y).flatten()

Helper function for plotting the decision boundary of the SVM.

def plot_contours(ax, cl, xx, yy, **params):
    """Plot the decision boundaries for a classifier.

    :param ax: matplotlib axes object
    :param cl: a classifier
    :param xx: meshgrid ndarray
    :param yy: meshgrid ndarray
    :param params: dictionary of params to pass to contourf, optional
    """
    Z = cl.decision_function(np.c_[xx.ravel(), yy.ravel()])
    Z = Z.reshape(xx.shape)
    # Plot decision boundary and regions
    out = ax.contour(xx, yy, Z, 
                     levels=[-1., 0., 1], 
                     colors='black', 
                     linestyles=['dashed', 'solid', 'dashed'])
    out = ax.contourf(xx, yy, Z, 
                     levels=[Z.min(), 0, Z.max()], 
                     colors=[[0.5, 1.0, 0.5], [1.0, 0.5, 0.5]])
    return out
def decision_boundary_plot(models, X, y, axs, filename, titles, xlim, ylim):
    """Plot a decision boundary on the given axes
    
    :param axs: the axes to plot on.
    :param models: the SVM models to plot
    :param titles: the titles for each axis
    :param X: input training data
    :param y: target training data"""
    for ax in axs.flatten():
        ax.clear()
    X0, X1 = X[:, 0], X[:, 1]
    if xlim is None:
        xlim = [X0.min()-1, X0.max()+1]
    if ylim is None:
        ylim = [X1.min()-1, X1.max()+1]
    xx, yy = np.meshgrid(np.arange(xlim[0], xlim[1], 0.02),
                         np.arange(ylim[0], ylim[1], 0.02))
    for cl, title, ax in zip(models, titles, axs.flatten()):
        plot_contours(ax, cl, xx, yy,
                      cmap=plt.cm.coolwarm, alpha=0.8)
        ax.plot(X0[y==1], X1[y==1], 'r.', markersize=10)
        ax.plot(X0[y==0], X1[y==0], 'g.', markersize=10)
        ax.set_xlim(xlim)
        ax.set_ylim(ylim)
        ax.set_xticks(())
        ax.set_yticks(())
        ax.set_title(title)
        mlai.write_figure(os.path.join(filename),
                          figure=fig,
                          transparent=True)
    return xlim, ylim
import matplotlib
font = {'family' : 'sans',
        'weight' : 'bold',
        'size'   : 22}

matplotlib.rc('font', **font)
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
# Create an instance of SVM and fit the data. 
C = 100.0  # SVM regularization parameter
gammas = [0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1]


per_class=30
num_samps = 20
# Set-up 2x2 grid for plotting.
fig, ax = plt.subplots(1, 4, figsize=(10,3))
xlim=None
ylim=None
for samp in range(num_samps):
    X, y=create_data(per_class)
    models = []
    titles = []
    for gamma in gammas:
        models.append(svm.SVC(kernel='rbf', gamma=gamma, C=C))
        titles.append('$\gamma={}$'.format(gamma))
    models = (cl.fit(X, y) for cl in models)
    xlim, ylim = decision_boundary_plot(models, X, y, 
                           axs=ax, 
                           filename='../slides/diagrams/ml/bias-variance{samp:0>3}.svg'.format(samp=samp), 
                           titles=titles,
                          xlim=xlim,
                          ylim=ylim)